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Native American Indians
SS4H1 The student will describe how early Native American cultures developed in North America.
a. Locate where Native Americans settled with emphasis on the Arctic (Inuit), Northwest (Kwakiutl), Plateau (Nez Perce), Southwest (Hopi), Plains (Pawnee), and Southeast (Seminole).
b. Describe how Native Americans used their environment to obtain food, clothing, and shelter.
The Kwakiutl indians are a tribe that live in Great Britain present, whose culture is known from its totem poles and masks. Before making contact with the european settlers in the late 1700's, they had a complex society with the all powerful chiefs and nobles called a potlatch which was a festival that lasted days.
They trap salmon with large wooden fences.
Kwakiutl Thunderbird totem pole, Alert Bay, British Columbia, ca. 1915
Here is a Kwakiutl carver at work.
Here are some Kwakiutl masks.
archival image furs stacked on beach
Because the Kwakiutl have access to fish and their body oils, the tribe was an important part of the trade network amongst other tribes. They also hunted, trapping animals for their meat and fur. Such creatures were usually otters, weasels, mink, marmonts, and squirrels which were caught in baited traps. With the furs, women could make clothes and jewelery. And with meat, they obviously fed themselves.
This is a dance that the Kwakiutl did.
The Kwakiutl traveled on canoes on water to move from place
to place. They held many people including their leaders.
Pacific Coast States map
The Kwakiutl lived along the Pacific Coast.
Hunted fish, sea mammals, deer, and birds
Ate berries and roots
Women gathered clams, shellfish, and seaweed
Some men were something called a
Used cedar bark,animal skins,aprons,skirts,and waterproof clothing
They built homes from cedar bark and lodges
They decorated their homes with wood carvings and paint
Usually their homes were large up to 100 feet.
D Shaped Actre
The Kwakiutl indians catch salmon with wooden fences and wooden spears.
Today, the Kwakiutl speak english
Some elders still speak regular language
Used to speak "Kwak'wala"
Kwakiutl music is used in religious and ritual ceremonies.
There main instruments are rattles and whistles.
POTLATCH- a feast that could last for several days
IRRIGATION- away of supplying water to ditches or pip
LONGHOUSE- a home to the indians which was made out of bark, grass, and earth
Masks represent ancestral spirits
Masks are used in traditional dances and other performances
Families have there own masks that are passed from generation to generation
Masks tell the history of their ancestry
Are expert fisherman
The ceremonial function and significance of masks for the Kwakiutl seems to have changed significantly as a result of colonization and Christianization over the last century and a half. The style and form of masks changed in tandem with access to iron tools and supplies made available after contact with early Russian explorers and European settlers (Holm 1965: 5; Malin 1978: 13; Jonaitis 1991: 39, 54; Masco 1995: 42)
Kwakiutl Winter Dance
Kwakiutl Winter Dance
This dance is being performed at a southern Kwakiutl village on Quatsino Sound. Elaborate theatrical performances were an important part of Northwest Coast native life (watercolour by
Kwakiutl Village of Xumtaspi-
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